Binary Number System

 . Number system is a way to represent numbers.
 . Binary Number system represent numeric values using 0's and 1's.
 . Computers stores everything in binary.
 . A digit in binary is called 'Binary Digit' or 'Bit'.

Why do computers use Binary Number System?

 . Computers are constructed from billions of ON/OFF switches.
 . All working mechanism depends on ON/OFF of switch to read and write.
 . Switch ON  -> 1
 . Switch OFF -> 0
 . Whatever input we send, it is converted into digital signals and passes from component to component.
 . In storing devices ( registers), it is converted into binary.
 . Flip-flops in registers are used to make storage cells, by ON/OFF technique to store memory.

Binary Vs Decimal Number System:

 . Generally we use decimal number system for indicating numbers in real time.
 . It means from 0-9.
 . But, computers can understand only binary numbers, so it must be converted.

Conversion of Decimal to Binary:

 . Any number in decimal is easily converted into binary by using modulo technique:

Conversion of Binary to Decimal:

  . When the data is sent out, first it should be converted into decimal.
  . The technique used in converting binary to decimal is by multiplying each digit with powers of 2 incrementing from left and adding them.

 Characters to Binary:

  . All the characters what we sent to computer, they are encoded into binary.
  . ASCII Code is used to convert characters to decimals and then, decimal to binary.
  . Suppose, we send letter 'A', then ASCII code for 'A' is 65. 65 is converted into 1000001.