. Stands for Printed Circuit Board.
 . It is a thin board made of fibre glass, composite epoxy and other laminate materials.
 . Conductive paths are printed onto board which connects transistors, resistors and IC's.

Before PCB's:

 . Circuits were constructed through wiring and point-to-point connections.
 . It led to many failures at wire junctions.
 . Short circuits occurs when wire insulation began to age and crack.

Applications of PCB's:

 . Used in desktops, laptops.
 . Video cards, RAM, motherboard made of PCB's.
 . Also found in TV, radio, digital cameras, cellphones.


  . Compact size.
  . Components are fixed, they do not move.
  . Tight connections, short circuits are avoided.
  . Low radiation, low cross talk between components.
  . Layouts once designed can produce mass number of same type.


  . Increased design time.
  . Development cost.
  . Difficult to modify once board is fabricated.
  . Sensitive to handle.
  . Not easy to repair once damaged.